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However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC.

It then underwent a long period of decline, especially in the Middle Ages, when many Spartans moved to live in Mystras.

Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives.

Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which configured their entire society to maximize military proficiency at all costs, and completely focused on military training and excellence.

The likely total of 40,000–50,000 made Sparta one of the largest Greek cities; The French classicist François Ollier in his 1933 book Le mirage spartiate ("The Spartan Mirage") warned that a major scholarly problem regarding Sparta is that all the surviving accounts were written by non-Spartans who often presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta.

this was also used sometimes as an adjective and is the name commonly used in the works of Homer and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.

If the ancients wished to refer to the country more directly, instead of Lacedaemon, they could use a back-formation from the adjective: Lacedaemonian country.Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens, who enjoyed full rights), mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans), perioikoi (free residents, literally "dwellers around"), and helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved non-Spartan local population).Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely considered to be among the best in battle.This term was sometimes used to refer to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia.Lakedaimona was until 2006 the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia.

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As most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the feminine: Lacedaemonia (, Lakedaimonia). "Lacedaemonia" was not in general use during the classical period and before.